Keywords: Buddhism; translation; intersubjectivity; naturalization; alienation
Abstract: It has been believed that more emphasis had been laid on the liberal translation in the history of the Chinese translation, with too much emphasis on the subject of translator. That is, it is always the translator's dominance in the Chinese traditional translation by usingdomesticating method rather than foreignization. However, we believe that the success of the ancient Buddhism translation owes much to the harmonious inter-subjectivity such as the original writer, translator interpreter, reader, supervisor, and publisher involved in translation. Actually, if more attention were paid to the realization of such inter-subjectivity in translating, we would have got more successful translation in quality and effect.
Key words: Buddhism; translation; inter-subjectivity; domestication; foreignization
Whether in philosophy, or in the literature, the discussion on the subject of the topic has become obsolete. But this concept in translation studies will still cause a lot of controversy.Especially in recent years, scholars have translated the subject of discussion is lively. Through discussion and contention, some scholars believe that "the translator is the only translation of the main"  Some scholars believe that the main translation should include writers, translators and readers , as well as scholars believe that, in addition to translators, thereaders and to accept the environment is also the main creative treason . However, no matter how much debate the differences, on the translator's main role seems to have given full recognition, while the traditional translation of the overblown "free translation", "domestication" are given the same criticism. This paper from the translation of the ancient Buddhist historical facts, explore the subject translation of Buddhist scriptures in the understanding of the role of translation, and then shows the dominant position of the translator as well as with other subjects of the relationship between the ancient scriptures in our activities has been established and a measure of scriptures of the level of the key factors.
Second, the translation of Buddhist scriptures in ancient China Overview
Translation of Buddhist scriptures in ancient China mainly refers to the period of Eastern Han Emperor Heng (AD 148 years) to the early Song Dynasty (AD 988) Translation of Buddhist activities. Rise to a peak and then decline from the last 800 years. Generally believed that the 2nd century AD, came to Iran, China, Buddhist monks Anshi Gao is the founder of Translation, 34 Transwhiz their lives, more than 40 volumes. Since then, in the famous Buddhist masters have Kumarajiva translation, the true meaning of Xuanzang and not waited in vain. This division has four of the five is the translation of foreign monk, Xuan Zang is the only Han Chinese. Kumarajiva (AD 343) of native India, came to China during the Eastern Jin Dynasty, lived 17 years in Gansu, after 58 years of age to Chang'an in the translation of Buddhist scriptures, and his scriptures of 35, more than 300 volumes, "he was the first time classical Indian Buddhism introduced into China and Turkey, according to the original directly on the revival of Chinese Buddhism during the Six Dynasties and the Sui and Tang dynasties the formation of the Buddhist Zhuzong, have played an important role " 16. The essence of India in AD 546 monks were invited to promote Buddhism in China, in China stay for 23 years, scriptures were 38, 118 volumes. Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Zhenguan in three years (AD 629) of pro-go to India to study Buddhism, after 17 years returned to Chang'an, then the cause of nearly 20 years of dedicated scriptures were Transwhiz 75, 1335 Vol. Staff and students are not empty in India (AD 705), the young uncle came to China with a lifetime Transwhiz 110, a total of 143 volumes. History of Chinese Buddhism in Translation, have chosen as a representative of these five masters, not only because of their scriptures is a high level, but also because they represent the scriptures of several major Buddhist sects.
The degree of influence from the translation of Buddhist scriptures read, the scriptures activities Kumarajiva and Xuan Zang is considered the greatest impact, not only is the number of their respective scriptures leading position at the time, and their scriptures are also called first-class quality . Here that the quality standards than the "song from the dialect, naughty fun in this" or "arbitrary meaning, the words songjang. Poet with the writing, to grant to play" or "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive" (Tang Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks").
From the Translation of view, the five masters used different translation methods. An Shigao and after Kumarajiva are learning Chinese in China, and soon proficient in Chinese. But in the process of translation of Buddhist scriptures, An Shigao literal approach adopted, and strive to save the true colors of the classic; Kumarajiva Tech's translation is used (ie, free translation), by the righteousness of Fozhi to promote and elucidate, "so easy to accept Turkey chanting learners understand", without losing the "natural interest in the language of the Western Regions." Essence is invited to China to pass on, at first did not know Chinese, translation when equipped with a special "pass phrase", and then by the "pen by" documenting written.After 60 years of age, before the true meaning of "becoming benevolent Chinese words, do not need interpretation" of the. Therefore, his scriptures to use more literal way, the text will inevitably be "incomprehensible" in places, but mainly explained by the meaning of his main purpose, which asked how many have got some of his own views. From this sense, his scriptures and with a paraphrase of the mark. Famous monk in Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang 13 years old, 21 years old by the situation right ring, 29-year-old went to India to study Sanskrit classic, 46-year-old learn from home. He not only proficient in Sanskrit, by the deeper meaning was the essence of Buddhism is a "learn to do Brahmana, the solution to make the Buddha intended." Therefore, in the translation of Buddhist scriptures when "the language Chengzhang", "view the text as yourself, turn equipment still ring" (Tang, Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Although the Indians did not empty the master, but his childhood came to China, learn Chinese culture, Chinese language proficiency Vatican, translation easy to understand, "the turn by the theory, are microscopic holes." Such as "Inwang protect the country Prajna Paramita Sutra", the essence of the master hand is translated as "Inwang Wisdom by" not empty the master to be translated into "Inwang by" a paraphrase of the model. Translation of research to see from that period, the rise of translation of Buddhist scriptures for the translation of research. Influential in the first dimension only when the number of difficult, Zhu will still go far as the representative of the "quality" faction, supported Chen in the "Dhammapada sequence," The idea will also be traced back to Confucius and Lao Zi, where: "the book different words, Words "," no kind words letter words are not beautiful. "Thus, concluded:" Chuan Wu Yi today, is desirable path up. " 6, however, the quality is still blind, it is inevitable stylistic barrier , incomprehensible words, adverse widely read, and there is "good Qin Wen," and that even the Eastern monks Road safety has to admit that there are five cases could not be "Trail up" (ie "five lost this"). Later, after a change of valuing Kumarajiva quality translation, the original system of informal, regular variation, both fit naturally lively and wonderful meaning. Praised his humanity after a Buddhist monk Xuan Jie, the translation of the classic "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive, will be made up to party, strength of character Reuben, Wang Yan in the world, no loss, narrated."  Since then, the "culture", "quality" of the war has been a Buddhist translation studies of the two main schools. During this period, the dispute has not yet subsided text quality, the more it tends to fight more clear and consistent, that is a compromise, because "the text off the injured Yan, rather then the risk of wild nature" . This debate should be attributed to committed Translating the results of the main practical and theoretical study of ancient monks, such as the Eastern Jin Dynasty monk Hui Yuan, Buddhist monks Later Qin Rui, Liang Yu monk monk, monks Sui Yan Zong of the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, Tao Xuan and Song Ning, like monks. They are not only persistent practice, but also from the perspective of dialectical quality and yet the text still blindly given serious criticism, particularly the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Master Translating practice tone quality of the two monks translated the text and the concept is still made the offer as an example. Liang praised descendants, said: "If those Xuan Zang, the paraphrase translation, successful conciliation, the polar orbit Stora also"  29. To do this, of course, not just the "five no turning," can be achieved, but the main thing is, "Xuan Zang in the scriptures in the successful use of the supplementary method, omit the method, displacement method, sub-legal, translated under the guise of law, pronounsreduction method " 31 and so on translation skills, to solve such as" no hidden as ignorant, "" quiet Xu Mo look "like the problem.